sometimes bonds are issued at a discount in an effort to attract buyers. But most discounts develop chiefly as a result of changes in interest rates. To understand how that happens, start with a conjectural 30-year corporate bind with a $ 1,000 face respect issued 20 years ago with a 5 % coupon sake rate. That means it has been paying $ 50 a year ( 5 % of $ 1,000 ) for the past 20 years and is immediately ten years away from adulthood. You would n’t give the owner $ 1,000 for that bond today because rates have risen since then, and you expect to earn more than $ 50 for each $ 1,000 you invest in bonds now. At what price would that 5 % chemical bond become a good bribe ? Finding out takes some mathematics, but not much. **First, compare the current yield.** The current yield is the annual pastime payment divided by the current price. To put it another means, the current price is the annual payment divided by the current concede. Let ‘s assume that other bonds you could buy are yielding 6.9 %. The bond you ‘re considering buying must match that or you should pass it up. What price for the $ 1,000 bond would make it yield 6.9 % to the buyer ? here ‘s the mathematics : Price = 50/0.069 = $ 725 ( rounded off ). so $ 725 would be a fair price for this bond .Skip advert **Next, find the yield to maturity.** The 5 % shackle pays $ 50 a class and will be redeemed in ten years at its par value of $ 1,000, which is $ 275 more than the current price suggested by current matter to rates. You wo n’t realize the $ 275 for ten years, but for mathematical convenience let ‘s say you receive the deduction as adequate installments of $ 28 for each of the ten years. The percentage digit that tells you how much you are earning from matter to payments plus the annual payout of a one-tenth of the dismiss is the yield to maturity.

unfortunately, you do n’t simply add and then divide. bond dealers use bail tables and programmed calculators to compute yields to maturity, and some hand-held fiscal calculators can do it. But you can approximate the concede to maturity with the following shortcut recipe : annual matter to + anually accumulated discount/ average of equality value and stream price ten 100Skip advert For the bond in the exemplar : 50 + 28 = 78/860 = .09069 x 100 = 9.06 % = 9.1 % The same recipe can be used for bonds for which you pay a premium. In those cases you would subtract the annually roll up agio from the annual pastime payment. Do n’t worry about following this use besides closely. It ‘s presented not as a mathematical exemplar for you to use, but as an model of the kinds of considerations that affect the value of a bond you might buy or sell at a discount rate .

## Other Things to Consider

**Stay up to date on the credit rating.** A adhesiveness ‘s choice denounce may be revised after it is issued because of a change in the issuer ‘s fiscal health. many bonds have been on the market a long time, so it ‘s important to check current ratings.

**Be sure there’s an easy exit.** Although you may buy a bind securely intending to hold it to adulthood, it normally does n’t make sense to freeze yourself into an investment. ordinary investors should restrict themselves to investment-grade bonds that can be priced and sold well to other investors. **Watch your maturities.** Often you can select bonds that will mature precisely when you need boastfully sums — say, for college expenses or, at retirement, for reinvestment in bonds with high current yields to supplement your pension income. besides, remember that the foster away a attachment ‘s maturity date, the riskier it is as an investment .